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GABBRO: An igneous granular stone composed chiefly of pyroxene, augite or diallage, and plagioclase.
GALLET: A stone chip or spall.
GANG SAW: A machine with multiple blades used to saw rough quarry block into slabs. Also known as a frame saw.
GANG SAWED: Description of the granular surface of stone resulting from gang sawing alone.
GANTRY SAW: A usually single diamond blade saw with a mobile rail and blade that can be repositioned along its tracks between cuts.
GARRETING: The insertion of small splinters of stone in the mortar joints before the mortar has firmly set.
GAUGED or GAUGING: A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together the same thickness.
GLASS SEAM: Description of a narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane that has been recemented by deposition of translucent crystalline calcite in the crack and is usually structurally sound.
GLOSS: Luster or shininess, measured as light reflectance.
GNEISS: A metamorphic rock with a banded or coarsely foliated structure, often called "Trade Granite". Composed essentially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers, regular or irregular, of contrasting mineralogic composition.
GRADE COURSE: Beginning course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a dampcheck or damp course.
GRAIN: The easiest cleavage direction in a stone. Also the particles (crystals, sand grain, etc…) in a stone.
GRANITE: A very hard, crystalline, igneous rock, gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, quartz, and lesser amounts of dark ferromagnesium materials. Black "granites" are similar to true "granites" in structure and texture, but are composed of different minerals.
GRANULAR: Stones having a texture characterized by particles that are apparent to the unaided eye. For sedimentary rocks: particles less than 4 inches in diameter and approximately equal in size.
GRAVEL: Composed chiefly of quartz, but may contain granite, limestone, basalt, and other rocks.
GRAYWACKE: A grainy conglomerate stone composed of firmly cemented fragments of quartz.
GREEN MORTAR: Mortar that has set but not dried.
GREENSTONE: Includes stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise altered that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.
GRIT FINISH: A smooth non-reflective finish primarily used on marble and limestone marble.
GROG: Crushed brick that is blended with clay to form new brick.
GROUP CLASSIFICATION FOR SOUNDNESS: Standard trade practice definitions setting forth extent of shop fabrication normally required for group A,B, C, and D marbles.
GROUT: A mixture of cement material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents.
GROUT LIFT: The height to which grout is placed in a cell, collar joint or cavity without stopping; an increment of the total grout pour.
GROUT POUR: The total height of a masonry wall to be grouted prior to the placement of additional masonry. A grout pour may consist of one or more grout lifts.
GROUT CORE MASONRY: Masonry construction made with hollow units in which all or specific cores are filled with grout.
GROUTED MASONRY: Masonry construction made with solid masonry in which the interior joints and voids are filled with grout.
GUIDE SPECIFICATION: A recommended specification for the furnishing and installation of building stone.
GUY: A rope or wire which, with others, prevents a post or derrick from having side sway.
GYPSUM: A hydrated calcium sulfate. It is formed naturally as the result of the reaction of sulfuric acid produced by decomposition of pyrite upon the calcium carbonate of shells existing in clay; a sedimentary rock.
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HAIRLINE CRACKING: Random pattern of superficial cracking in an exposed concrete surface. Usually surface openings of 20 mils or less.
HALITE: Rock salt; sodium chloride; a sedimentary rock.
HALF BULL NOSE: A convex semicircular molding used on exposed edges or stone units such as stair treads, tops and window stools.
HALF ROUND: An exposed edge or molding with a semi-circular section or radii.
HAND CUT RANDOM RECTANGULAR: A pattern where all the stone is hand cut into squares and rectangles; joints are fairly consistent. Similar to sawed-bed ashlar in appearance.
HAND OR MACHINE PITCH-FACED ROCK-FACED: A finish given to both veneer stone and cutting stock. This is created by establishing a straight line back from the irregular face of the stone. Proper tools are then used to cut along the tile line leaving a straight arris and the intended rustic finish on the face.
HARD-BURNED: Nearly vitrified clay products that have been fired at high temperatures.
HARDNESS: A quality of stone determined by ASTM C241 test.
HEAD: The end of a stone which has been tooled to match the face of the stone. Heads are used at outside corners, windows, door jams, or any place where the veneering will be visible from the side.
HEAD JOINT: The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. Also called a cross-joint or a vertical joint.
HEADER: A masonry unit that overlaps two or more adjacent wythes of masonry to tie them together. Also called a bonder.
Blind header: A concealed brick header in the interior of a wall, not showing on the face.
Clipped header: A bat placed to look like a header for purposes of establishing a pattern; also called a false header.
Flare or Flashed Header: A header of darker color than the field of the wall.
HEADED COURSE: A continuous course of header brick; also called heading course.
HEADSTONE: A priciple stone, as in keystone or cornerstone.
HEARTH: That part of the floor of a room made of stone on which the fire is made or above is a stove, fireplace, furnace, etc…
HEMIHYDRATE: A hydrate which contains one-half of a molecule of water compared to one molecule of the principal element or compound forming the hydrate.
HERRINGBONE: A pattern of setting in which the units are laid aslant, with the direction of incline reversing in alternate courses, forming a zigzag effect.
HEWN STONE: To rough form by mallet and chisel.
HIGH-STRENGTH ADHESIVE: A bonding agent of high ultimate strength used to join individual pieces of stone into pre-assembled units.
HOLES: Sinkages in the top beds of stones to engage Lewis pins for hoisting.
HOLLOW BRICK UNIT: A brick unit in which the net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
HOLLOW WALL: A cavity wall, usually exterior, built in two separate parts, structurally connected as necessity with space between for checking the passage of water, or for better insulation created by the closed air space.
HONED/ HONE FINISH: A very fine, satin smooth finish on stone. This is the last step before polishing. A super fine smooth finish with little or no gloss. Recommended for commercial floors.
HORNBLENDE: A group of minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and aluminum silicates. May be present in igneous stones.
HYDRATE: A mineral formed by the combination of water and some other elements or compounds.
HYDRATED LIME: Quicklime to which sufficient water has been added to convert the oxides to hydroxides.
HYDRAULIC: To harden under (or with) water.
HYDROPHILIC: Substance which absorbs or has exhibited affinity for water.
HYDROPHOBIC: Having no affinity for or is repellent to water. The quality of beading water on a substrate.
HYDROUS: Containing chemically combined water.
HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE: Water absorbed by hydrophilic porous materials.
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IMPORT BROKER: One who acts as an independent sales representative in the United States, its territories and Canada for foreign suppliers.
IMPORTER: One who purchases, stocks, and distributes foreign materials in the United States, its territories and Canada, in substantial quantities and reliable quality.
INCISE: To cut inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.
INDENTING: Omission of some stones to allow for future bonding-in work.
INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION: The weight of water absorbed when a brick is partially immersed in water for one minute, expressed in grams per 30 square inches of contact surface, also called suction.
INITIAL SET: The first setting action of mortar, the beginning of the set.
INLAY: Surface decoration achieved by the insertion of lines or patterns of contrasting material.
INSCRIPTION: Lettering cut in stone.
INSTALLATION: See erection.
INTERIOR: The inside of a room or of a building.
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JAMB: The vertical side of a window or door opening, against which the sash or the door abuts.
JOINT: The space between installed units or between dimensional stones and the adjoining material.
JOINTING: The finishing of joints between courses of masonry units before the mortar has hardened.
JOINTING SCHEME: Architectural drawing detailing dimensions, location and configuration of stone units and joints related to the structure.
JOINTS: Flush, rake, cove, weathered, bead, stripped, and "V".
JOINT REINFORCEMENT: Steel reinforcement placed in or on mortar bed joints.
JOIST: A horizontal member in the framing of a floor or ceiling.
JUMPER: In ashlar patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent stones which is used to end a horizontal mortar joint at the point where it is set.
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KERF: A slot into the edge of stone with saw blade for insertion of anchors.
KEY BLOCK: In deepening a quarry, or starting to quarry downward from a horizontal surface, the first block removed from a new ledge, providing space and access for further block removal by undercutting, underdrilling, or lateral shifting.
KEYSTONE: The last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch regarded as binding the whole.
KILN: A furnace, oven, or heated enclosure used for burning or firing brick or clay material.
KILN RUN: Brick from one kiln that have not yet been sorted or graded for size or color variation.
KING CLOSURE: A brick cut diagonally to have one two-inch end and one full width end.
KNEELER: Gabled cope stone which by its shape is also part of the wall, and may support other cope stones.
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LATERAL SUPPORT: Method wherby walls or columns are braced in the vertical span by beams, floors or roofs, or walls in the horizontal span by columns, pilasters, buttresses or cross walls.
LATEX ADDITIVE: Rubber or resins in water which coalesce to form a continuous film that imparts specific properties to portland cement products.
LATHE: Machine for turning columns, balusters, and other circular stone work; also for rubbing and polishing surfaces of same.
LAVA: A general term applied to igneous rocks such as basalt and rhyolite, that erupted from the earth by volcanic action.
LEAD: The section of a wall built up and racked back on successive courses. A line is attached to leads as a guide for constructing a wall between them.
LEAD BUTTONS: Lead spacers in the solid horizontal joints to support the top stones until mortar has been set.
LEDGER: A slab of stone used horizontally to cover a tomb.
LEGS: Vertical dimension stone used on sides of a fireplace opening.
LEWIS BOLT: A tapered head device wedged into a tapered recess in the edge of a dimensional stone unit, used for lifting purposes and hanging soffits.
LEWIS HOLES: Holes in cut stones for lifting and supporting during setting of cut stones and sometimes for permanent support. Holes are checked for the particular Lewis (lifting device or hook) to be used.
LIME-Hydraulic: Containing compounds which cause a chemical set in reaction with water.
LIME-Hydrated: Carbon hydroxide or slaked lime that has been reduced to dry powder.
LIME PUTTY: Hydrated lime on plastic form ready for addition to mortar.
LIMESTONE: A sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of limestone used as dimensional stone are usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining or bedding direction. Limestones that contain not more than five percent magnesium carbonate may be termed calcite limestone, as distinguished from those that contain between five and forty percent magnesium carbonate, and from those that contain in excess of forty percent as the mineral dolomite. Recrystallized limestones and compact, dense, relatively pure microcrystalline varieties that are capable of taking a polish are known as marbles.
LINE: A string stretched taut as a guide for laying the top edge of a course of masonry units.
LINERS: Structurally sound sections of stone that are cemented and dowelled to the back of stone wall units, to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, assist in support, or to increase joint depth.
LINE PIN: A metal pin used to attach line used for alignment of masonry units.
LINERS: Structurally sound sections of stone cemented and doweled to the back of thin stone units; to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
LINTEL: A beam placed or constructed over an opening in a wall to carry the superimposed load.
LIPPAGE: A condition where one edge of a stone is higher than adjacent edges, giving the finished surface a ragged appearance.
LIPPING: Usually refers to flagging materials. Lipping is caused when two pieces of material to be joined together are slightly warped or twisted causing one or more edges to be higher or lower than the adjoining material.
LOADBEARING: A structural system or element designed to carry loads in addition to its own dead load.
LUG: A small projecting member of a larger stone piece, to engage an adjoining unit or to serve as an aid in handling.
LUG SILL: Stone sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening.
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MALLET: Type of wood or plastic hammer, used to drive chisels.
MALPAIS: Literally, badland; refers to dark-colored rock, commonly lava, in rough terrain.
MANTEL: The structural member spanning the opening of a fireplace. Also, a shelf (usually cubic stone) which is part of the finish and above the fireplace opening.
MANUFACTURED: Dimensional stone fabricated, ready for installation.
MANUFACTURER: One who fabricates dimensional stone.
Architectural definition: Calcium Carbonate with other components which give it color, markings, and texture suitable as a desirable building stone. Scientific definition: A metamorphic (recrystallized) limestone composed predominately of crystalline grains of calcite or dolomite or both, having interlocking or mosaic texture.
Commercial definition: A crystalline rock composed predominately of one or more of the following materials: calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish.
MARBLE INSTITUTE OF AMERICA: An international trade association whose membership is composed of contractors, exporters, importers, manufacturers, producers, and wholesalers of dimensional stone, as well as those who supply products and services to the industry.
MASH HAMMER: A short-handled heavy hammer with two round or octagonal faces, used to drive hammer-head shaping tools.
MASON: Worker or installer of stone.
MASONRY: The practice of the mason’s craft with brick, tile, concrete masonry units and other materials. Or, the work resulting from the practice of the mason’s craft; structures built of stone, brick or other materials set as units in patterns and amenable to assembly with mortar whether or not mortar is usually used. Or, the type of construction made up of masonry units laid with mortar or grout or other accepted method of jointing.
Reinforced Masonry: Masonry constructed with steel reinforcement embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces.
Unreinforced Masonry: Masonry construction without steel reinforcement, except that which may be used for bonding or reducing the effects of dimensional changes due to variations in moisture content or temperature. Also called plain masonry.
MASONRY CEMENT: A mill-mixed cementious material to which sand and water is added to make mortar.
MASONRY UNIT: Natural or manufactured building units of fired clay or shale, concrete, stone, glass, gypsum, etc…
MASTIC: A pasty, mortar-like material composed of solvent-based organic adhesives that cures quickly by evaporation of the solvents.
MATCHING: Selecting, cutting, and placing finished stone slabs to obtain a uniform and symmetrical pattern of natural veining and color.
MATRIX: The rock in which a crystallized mineral is embedded.
MECHANIC: One skilled in installation of dimensional stone.
MEGALITH: A stone of great size.
MENSA: The top horizontal member or surface of an altar, usually of stone.
METAMORPHIC ROCK: Rock altered in appearance, density and crystalline structure, and in some cases mineral composition, by high temperature or pressure, or both. Slate is derived from shale; quartzite from quartz sandstone; and true marble from limestone.
METAMORPHISM: The change or alteration in a rock caused by exterior agencies, such as deep-seated heat and pressure, or intrusion of rock materials.
METER: A unit of linear measure in the metric system; equivalent to 39.37 inches.
MICA: Any group of mineral silicates in a multi-layered form; characterized by cleaving which permits splitting into thin sheets.
MICROCRYSTALLINE LIMESTONE: A limestone that consists largely or wholly of crystals that are so small as to be recognizable only under magnification.
MILLING: Processing of quarry blocks through sawing, planing, turning, and cutting.
MITER: The junction of two units at an angle, of which the junction line usually bisects on a 45’ angle.
MOCK-UP: A large or full size stone sample panel installed to show full range of color, shading and texture.
MODULAR-MULTIPLE CUT PATTERN CUT: This refers to standard patterns used throughout the stone industry. These patterns are usually based on multiples of 3" or 6", stone that is multiple cut or pattern cut is pre-cut to allow for ¼" or ½" joints or beds.
MODULUS OF RUPTURE: The stress at which a specimen of stone breaks in the testing.
MOH’S SCALE: A gauge of hardness among minerals. Not to be confused with hardness as determined by ASTM C241 test.
MOLD: Formed template. Sometimes spelled in the trade as "mould."
MOLDINGS: Decorative stone deviating form a plane surface by projections, curved profiles, recesses, or any combination thereof.
MONOLITHIC: Shaped from a single block of stone, as a monolithic column, in contrast with a stacked column consisting of superimposed stone drums. Also, a bed of portland cement cast over a concrete slab without an isolation membrane.
MONO SAW: Similar to gang saw, except it has only one blade for cutting large stone units.
MORTAR: A plastic mixture of cement , water, and fine aggregates which combine together through a chemical process of crystallization to form a hardened solid that bonds building units together.
Fat Mortar: Mortar containing a high percentage of cementitous components. It’s a sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel.
Lean Mortar: Mortar that is deficient in cementitious components. It is usually harsh and difficult to spread.
Nonstaining Mortar: A mortar with a low free-alkali content to avoid efflorescent or staining by adjacent stones migration of soluble materials.
MORTAR BED: A troweled layer of mortar, in a plastic state, in which building units will be set.
MOSAIC: A veneering which is generally irregular with no definite pattern. Nearly all the stone used in a mosaic pattern is irregular in shape.
MULLION: Vertical division member between windows or doors
MULTIPLE PATTERN: Stone cut in rectangular multiples of a certain dimension. Usually cut to allow for standard ¼" or standard ½" joint.
MULTIPLE-RISE ASHLAR: Stone, usually splitface, which is cut in various rises which will "course out" (level with) each other when used in proper combination with standard-width mortar joints.
MUSCOVITE: A white, aluminum-rich mica found in granite.
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NATURAL BED: The setting of the stone on the same plane as it was formed in the ground. This generally applies to all stratified materials.
NATURAL CEMENT: Lime with high clay content.
NATURAL CLEFT: This generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are elevated or separated along a natural seam, the remaining surface is referred to a natural cleft surface.
NATURAL STONE: Although technical a redundancy, as a stone its occurrence by definition, the term is used to distinguish true stone from imitation materials.
NEAT CEMENT: A pure cement uncut by a sand admixture.
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA: See cross-sectional area.
NICKED BIT FINISH: Obtained by planing the stone with a planer tool in which irregular nicks have been made in the cutting edge.
NOMINAL DIMENSION: A dimension greater than a specified masonry dimension by the thickness of a mortar joint.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE: Any material that will neither ignite nor actively support combustion in air at a temperature of 1.200’F when exposed to fire.
NONCORRODING: Resistant to harmful oxidation or other corrosive actions because of its composition (i.e. stainless steel, bronze, copper).
NON-FERROUS: Not containing iron material.
NON-STAINING MORTAR: Mortar composed of materials which individually or collectively do not contain material that will stain and usually have a very low alkali content.
NOSING: The rounded front edge of a stair tread.
NOTCHED TROWEL: Trowel with a serrated or notched edge used for spreading mortar or adhesive in ridges of a specific thickness.
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O.C.: On centers, an abbreviation frequently used in dimensioning shop drawings, designating dimensions from the center of one member to the center of the next.
OFFSET: A course or unit that is set in from the course directly under it, the opposite of a projection.
OGEE: A stone molding with a reverse curved edge, concave above, convex below.
ONE-MAN BOULDERS: Rough stone under 150 pounds.
ONYX: A variety of quartz in crystalline form of calcium carbonate. It is characterized by a structure of parallel brands each differing in color or in the degree of translucency. Considering to be a marble because it can take a polished.
ONYX MARBLE: A crystalline from, commonly microcrystalline, of calcium carbonate deposited usually from cold water solutions. It is generally translucent and shows characteristic layering. Commercially, onyx is considered a marble because it can be polished.
OOLITIC LIMESTONE: Rock consisting mainly of calcite, made up of largely oolites or granular particles (generally tiny fossils or fossil fragments) that have calcium coatings. A calcite-cemented calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically non-crystalline in character it is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen counties in Indiana, also in Alabama, Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically a freestone, without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of composition, texture and structure. It also possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature changes.
OPALIZED: The introduction into a rock of sill ceous material in the form of opal, a hydrous silicate.
OPEN-FACED QUARRY: Open, fairly level quarry at or near ground level.
ORGANIC: Designation of any chemical compound containing carbon (some of the simple compounds of carbon, such as carbon dioxide, are frequently classified as inorganic compounds). To date, nearly one million organic compounds have been synthesized or isolated. Many occur in nature; others are produced by chemical synthesis.
OUT-CROP: Rock protruding above or at ground level.
OUT-OF WIND: Generally refers to veneer stone. To be out of wind is to have the arris of the stone not in parallel or perpendicular lines; stone which is out of wind has an irregular or rustic appearance.
OVER BURDEN: Waste stone, earth or other quarry material covering useful stone.
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Stone which comes palletized is easily moved and transported by modern handling equipment. Palletized stone generally arrives at the site in better condition then non-palletized material.
PANEL: A single unit of fabricated stone veneer.
PANEL WALL: A non-bearing wall consisting of panels of various materials, each panel being separately held in frame. The frame may be the structure itself or fastened to the structural framework of the building.
PARAPET: A low wall around the perimeter of a building at roof level or around balconies.
PARAPET WALL: Part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
PARCLOSE: A screen of stone separating chapels, especially at the east end of the aisles, from the body of the church.
PARGING: Dampproofing by applying a coat of mortar to the back of the stone units or to the face of the back-up material.
PARQUETRY: Inlay of stone floors in geometrical or other patterns consisting of two or more colors or materials.
PARTITION: An interior wall one story or less in height, generally non-loadbearing.
PASCAL: SI unit expressing force per unit area (PSI is the English equivalent).
PATCH: Repair compound used to fill natural voids or to replace chips and broken corners or edges in fabricated pieces of dimension stone. Mixed or selected to match the stone in color and texture.
PATINA: The color and texture added to a surface by time and various allies.
PAVER: A single unit of fabricated stone for use as an exterior paving material.
PEDESTAL: A stone supporting structure or piece for a bust, column, statue, or vase.
PEDIMENT: The triangular face of a gable, if separated by entablature or molding from the lower wall and treated as decorative unit.
PENETRANT: A protective treatment that lines masonry pores; no film is formed on the surface.
PERFORATED WALL: One which contains a considerable number of relatively small openings. Often called pierced wall or screened wall.
PERM: The rate of vapor transmission of one grain per square foot per inch of mercury vapor pressure difference.
PERMEABILITY: The property of a substance which permits passage of water vapor; moisture vapor transmission.
PERPENDER: A stone extending through the thickness of a wall and finished on both ends.
PERRONS: Slabs of stone set on other stones serving as stops and arches in gardens.
PETROGLYPHY: Primitive stone carving.
PHENOCYRST: In igneous rocks, the relatively large and conspicuous crystals in a finer-grain matrix or ground mass.
Ph VALUE: A number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is a neutral value. Acidity increases with decreasing values below 7, while alkalinity increases with increasing values above 7.
PHENOL: A class of acid organic compounds used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, phenolformaldehyde resins, plasticizers, plastics and wood preservatives.
PICKED: Stone dressed using mason’s point
PICK & DIP: A method of laying brick with one hand and, with the other hand, dip enough mortar on a trowel to lay the brick. Sometimes called the Eastern or New England Method.
PIER: Solid stone support, smaller than and distinct from a column.
PILASTER: Engaged pier of shallow depth; in classical architecture it follows the height and width of related columns with similar base sod cap. In classical architecture, it follows the height and width of related columns, with similar base and cap.
PIT QUARRY: Below ground-level quarry.
PITCHED: Surface resembling rock-faced produced with pitching tool.
PITCHED STONE: Stone having arris clearly defined, face however is roughly cut with pitching chisel used along the line which becomes the arris.
PITCHING TOOL: Similar to large chisel but with blunt, not sharp, broad edge, about 6mm thick.
PISCINA: In ecclesiastical architecture, a basin of stone or marble in which the challice is washed after the rite of the Eucharist.
PLANER: Machine for planing moldings on to stone; machine used to reduce thickness and gauge stone; machine used to produce a machine finish on limestone.
PLASTER OF PARIS: A calcined gypsum in a hemihydrate state.
PLATE TRACERY: Tracery designs, usually simple and geometrical, cut through a thin slab of stone, as distinguished from a tracery proper, which is formed by mortared sections of molding.
PLINTHS: The lower square part of the base of a column. A square base or a lower block, as in a pedestal. The base block at the juncture of base-board and trim around an opening.
PLUCKED FINISH: Obtained by rough planing the surface of stone, braking or plucking out small particles to give rough texture.
PLUG AND FEATHERS: Tools used for splitting stone blocks.
PLUMB BOB: A shaped metal weight that is suspended from the lower end of a line to determine the vertical trueness.
PLUMB RULE: A narrow board with parallel edges having a straight line drawn through the middle and a string attached at the upper end of the line for determining a vertical plane.
PLYWOOD: Laminated wood in sheet form, with alternate laminations, changing direction of grain. Dimensionally unstable in the presence of moisture.
POINT: Chisel drawn nearly to a point.
POINT FINISH: A rough, tooled surface.
POINTING: The final filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been raked out.
POLISHED: The finest and smoothest finish available in stone, generally only possible on hard, dense materials. Or, a glossy finish which brings out the full color and character of the stone.
POLYESTER RESIN: A flexible, usually thermal setting resin formed by a polymerization process using a small amount of accelerator compound and used as an adhesive or to repair or fill certain stones.
POLYETHYLENE FILM: Plastic film sheet used for curing or as a cleavage or isolation membrane.
POROSITY: Ratio of pore space to the total volume of material expressed as a percent..
PORPHYRY: Igneous rock characterized by distinct and contrasting sizes of course and fine grained crystals. Used as a decorative building stone.
PORTLAND CEMENT: A hydraulic cement product obtained by pulverizing and calcimining a properly proportioned mixture of three minerals: lime, silica, and alumina.
POULTICING: Method of drawing soluble salts or stains out of stone by applying an absorbent such as clay or diatomaceous earth, mixed to a paste with water or cleaning solvent.
PREASSEMBLED UNITS: Two or more stones combined into a single unit by use of epoxy resins, steel framing or concrete backing.
PREABRICATED MASONRY: Masonry fabricated in a location other than its final location in the structure. Also known as preassembled, panelized, and prelaid masonry.
PRECAST: Having received its final form before introduction into a structure, as in precast concrete slabs.
PREDELLA: Platform surrounding an altar.
PRESSURE RELIEVING JOINT: An open horizontal joint below the supporting angle or hanger located at approximately every floor line and not over 15 ft. apart horizontally, and every 20-30 ft. vertically, to prevent the weight from being transmitted to the masonry below. These joints are to be caulked with a resilient nonstaining material to prevent moisture penetration.
PRISM: A small assemblage made with masonry units and mortar and sometimes grout. Primarily used to predict the strength of full scale masonry members.
PRODUCER: One who quarries stone.
PROFILE: The outline of the exposed face of a cross section.
PROFILE MACHINE: Machine for cutting moldings on to stone.
PROJECTIONS: Refers to the pulling out of stones in a veneered wall to give an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone is pulled out can vary between ¼" and 1 ½"; stones are either pulled out at the same degree at both ends or sometimes one end is pulled out leaving the other flush with the majority of veneer.
PUMICE: An exceptionally cellular, glassy lava, resembling a solid froth.
PUNCH: Chisel drawn to a narrow blade used for roughing process.
PYRITE: The natural sulfides of certain metals. The most common is iron pyrite, which is iron disulfide, a brittle mineral that is brassy yellow in color with greenish-black streaks.
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